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1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of Study The problems of freshwater quantity and quality demand and supply are becoming serious in many regions of the world, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions, which are areas of water deficit and yet where one-sixth of the world population lives (UNDP, 1999; World Bank, 1999). Rapid population growth increasingly generates pressure on existing water resources, and induces migration away from marginal land of the arid and semi-arid areas. Population growth, urbanization, and economic development, in addition to the existing degree of exploitation, are widely considered to be the main factors contributing to a growing gap between water supply and demand in many places around the world (Miller & Belton, 2014). This issue is especially prevalent in semi-arid zones of developing countries, where high rates of population growth and urbanization amidst poor water resources development are likely to result in severe water scarcity. Water availability is affected by climate variability and climate change. Population growth, Land use changes also affect water demand via changing water consumption over time. As a whole, the vulnerability of water resources systems over time is affected by changes in the condition of the main drivers. Water demand patterns of the future will be characterized by growing competition between sectors, especially in developing countries. That competition will be particularly intense around the cities, where the demands of households, industrial plants and agriculture will inevitably put increasing stress on water (just as on land).
1.0 INTRODUCTION This research work will critically explore the non-Governmental organisation and human right in Nigeria from 2011-2015 a case study of civil liberties organisation this chapter therefore, give a background to the study, statement of the problem, the aim and objectives, research preposition or assumption the research question will be discuss. However, significance of the study, scope and limitation, research methodology and operational definition will also analyse.
1.1 Background of the Study According to Leong (1971), the industrial revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries, brought about the use of machines in the process of producing goods from raw materials. Therefore the work of domestic crafts men has been taken over by highly complicated machines. This revolution creates two great developments, the burning of coal for steam power and melting of iron to make steel. He added that, the range and complexity of modern manufacturing industries are so great that is by no means easy to classify the industries. But most of them fall into the following seven groups; fuel and power industries, textiles, chemical food processing, rest of consumer goods industries, mineral extraction and finally, metallurgical industry. The last two groups of industries mention above involve the concentration, alloying and smelling of minerals which include both ferrous and nonferrous metals to produce math lines, instruments, equipment, iron and steel works from metals. Metal originate from the mining activities of iron-ore; which are rocks and mineral from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. Iron rich rocks are common worldwide. They are usually rich in iron-oxide (magnetite fe3O4, hematite fe2O4), and vary in colour from dark grey, bright yellow, deep purple and rusty red. Iron is the commonest most versatile and cheapest of all metals. It is used primarily in structural engineering application and maritime purposes, antibodies as well as general industrial constructions application (Leong, 2001). A metal (from Greek word "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity (Henry and Robert, 2010). Metals are generally malleable that is, they can be hammered or pressed permanently out of shape without breaking or cracking as well as fusible (able to be fused or melted) and ductile (able to be drawn out into a thin wire). About 91 of the 118 elements in the periodic table are metals; the others are nonmetals or metalloids. Some elements appear in both metallic and non-metallic forms Encyclopaedia Britannica (2016). According to Paul (2003), metal construction is the process of working to create individual parts, assemblies or large scale structures which were evolved from the discovery of smelting various ores, producing malleable and ductile metals useful for tools and adornments. In other words, metal construction is a sciences, art, hobby, industry and trade; the term covers a wide range of work from large ships and to precise engines parts, ornamental doors and windows as well as delicate jewelry (Smith, 1984). According to Gregory (1996), metal construction predates history as no one knows with any certainty where or when metal construction began. However the Egyptians are thought to have been one of the first civilization to work gold as metal its mentioned almost all other metals, are found in ores, a mineral bearing rocks that requires heat or some other, processes of liberate the metal. Remnants of such ancient mines have been found all over what is today the Middle East. According to Possehl and Gregory (1996), metal working was carried out by the South Asian in habitants of Mehrgrah between 7000-3300BC; they added that the end of the beginning of construction occurs sometimes around 6000BC when smelting became common in the Middle East
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Soil erosion is a complex process; encompassing detachment, transport and deposition, and is caused by wind, water and physical disturbances. It reduces land productivity, challenges agricultural sustainability and degrades soil air and water quality. Indirectly, soil erosion also degrades environmental quality through contaminants attached to the sediment. Soil erosion interacts with the global carbon cycle and climate change processes. In some conditions, these impacts are so severe that they reduce quality of life and economic well-being, and in poorer nations, they can even threaten survival (Asabe, 2002). Erosion, as it affects man and its environment is natural and as old as the earth itself (Omafra, 2003). It is seen as the gradual wearing-away of soil through the agents of denudation which include wind, water and man (Abegunde, et al., 2003). These denudating agents loose, wear away, dislodge, transport and deposit the soil particles and nutrients to another location. Water and wind are the major erosive agents that determine the type of erosion in a given area. Both erosion agents occur in the study environment; water erosion is wet, while wind erosion is dry. Erosion by water is the dominant geomorphic process for much of the Earth’s land surface (Terrence et al., 2001). It contributes to the detachment, transport and deposition of soil particles. Soil erosion by water is a major worldwide problem compared to wind erosion (Singer &Munns, 1999). By selectively removing organic matter and clay, water erosion not only removes but also may reduce the soil chemical capacity to retain added nutrients. On the other hand, wind erosion is a phenomenon largely created through detachment processes. This type of erosion occurs when the forces applied by the wind are greater than the resistance of the soil. Soil particles move by wind in one of the three ways; surface creep (rolling or sliding along surface), saltation (bouncing and dislodging other particles on impact) and suspension (continuously carried in the air).
1.1: Background to the Study Urban agriculture can be define as the production of food (for example vegetables, fruits, eggs, milk, fish and non food items such as herbs, ornamental plant, tree seedling, flours e. t .c) within the urban area and related small scale processing and marketing activities (Horanka, Zeeuw and Njeng 2009).It is the practice of producing vegetables, food and fruits within urban environment for household consumption as well as sale to the rapidly growing population (Dims et al., 2002). Urban agriculture takes place on private, leased or rented land in peri-urban areas in roadside, in prisons and other institutions as well as pounds, lakes and rivers.
21st century, Australia, citizen confidence, institutions, social attitudes, political change
Academic librarian
Academic Librarian
Academic Libraries
Academic library, men and women, library user, academic resources
academic publishing cultures
Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus, pest, leucaena leucocephala, life history, larval morphology
A cardinal principle on which democracy rests is popular mandate. It is the basis of representative democracy practice all over the world. Popular mandate presupposes the unstrained participation of the relevant community in the affairs of the community especially in the choice of those to carry out those affairs on behalf of the rest of the community members. The institution of election is one way, if not the only means of actualizing popular mandate. Similarly, political parties have become one of the pillars of democracy and a major and important vehicle for actualizing the democratic principle of popular mandate and responsible representation. If political parties are important ingredients of democracy, it goes without saying that the organization of political parties and the nature of their operations should embody the democratic ideals they fight to enthrone in the polity. However, it has been observed that while parties rely on democratic principle of popular mandate to contest and win elections. Specially many of them rarely reflect this principle in their organizational structure and administration, especially with regards to selection of party leaders and candidates for elective positions.
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According to Almond (1996), it is seen that individuals are socialized in the general value system and behavioural pattern of the society. But, at the same time, they also inculcate values and norms of specific other processes which take place within the society chiefly because of the existence and functioning of other systems in it. One of such important processes is Political Socialization which happens to be a significant ‘input function’ of the political system that regulates the society through "authoritative allocation of values”. Political socialization categorically refers to the learning process by which the political norms and behavior acceptable to an ongoing political system are transferred to the succeeding generations, Almond and Powell (P.24). It involves all types of learning formal and informal and deliberate and accidental. Also political socialization includes non-political learning that affects political behaviour namely; the learning of 'politically relevant' social attitudes and the acquisition of politically relevant personality characteristics. In short, political values, norms, standards and attitudes are inducted into the minds of the individuals through the process of political socialization. It is through the process of indoctrination of the individuals into the political culture the political system perpetuates.
Accounting, Demystified
Accounting earnings Corporateprofits Gross DomesticProduct(GDP)
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